DAMPAK NEGATIF 1- Mengandung Radiasi
Microwaves can be harmful to humans, the most obvious harmful effect is heating: warming up your food in the microwave is an everyday example of heating through microwaves.
Consequently, safety standards have been established to limit the microwave radiation exposure from mobile phones and base stations. This section will explain why the established safety standards are limited and do not protect your health.
One of the first organizations to look to would be the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC has an interesting take on Radio Frequency standards, it states on the FCC website:
The FCC is required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 to evaluate the effect of emissions from FCC-regulated transmitters on the quality of the human environment. At the present time there is no federally-mandated radio frequency (RF) exposure standard.
The FCC does have a standard that defines the maximum RF energy allowed to be absorbed through the head when using a mobile phone, measured through a value called the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR):
The SAR is a value that corresponds to the relative amount of RF energy absorbed in the head of a user of a wireless handset. The FCC limit for public exposure from cellular telephones is an SAR level of 1.6 watts per kilogram (1.6 W/kg).
However, the safety standards only protect from the heating effect of the microwave radiation, also called the ‘thermal effect’. If the microwave radiation does not cause a temperature increase in your head of more than one degree, the microwave exposure is deemed to be safe. The underlying assumption is that there cannot be cell damage without heating. And without cell damage, there is no health risk.
The ‘no damage without heating’-theory can be considered old and backward. Many research studies have shown that non-heating, or non-thermal, microwave radiation has a profoundly negative effect on the human body.
A 2003 study by Prof. Salford et al for example, established for the first time evidence for neurological damage caused by non-thermal microwave exposure.
Dr G.J Hyland, an authority on the potential health effects of non-thermal microwave radiation, states that:
there is thus absolutely no justification for claiming that Mobile Telecommunication Technology is safe and does not constitute a risk (both directly and indirectly) to public health.
The popular belief that adverse health effects can be induced only by the heating effect of [mobile phone] radiation is a fallacy.
Furthermore, mobile phones are not allowed in hospitals and on airplanes due to the concern that the microwave radiation might interfere with the electronics.
It does not make sense to acknowledge that there might be interference on sensitive electronic equipment due to the microwaves, but exclude the possibility that these same microwaves might have an impact on our body. After all, the human body is an extremely sensitive electrochemical instrument that uses various wave-based electrical processes (e.g. brain waves), each characterized by a specific frequency.
Concluding, the current safety standards for microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones only take thermal heating into account: microwave radiation is considered to be safe if your body temperature does not increase by more than one degree. The non-thermal effects are not taken into account, making the ’safety standards’ a mockery of public health.
New standards should be developed in order to protect the public from the possible health consequences of exposure to microwave radiation.
DAMPAK NEGATIF 2 – Berefek Bagi Kesehatan
Most media reports would have you believe that research studies on the negative health effects of mobile phones use are few and far between. This article will provide several studies on the different health effects to illustrate that the information is out there, and has been out there for years. In fact, many reports on the health risks of mobile phones have been published over the last few decades.
A study led by Dr Agarwal, Ph.D summarizes some of the researched health consequences of the microwave radiation we are exposed to though mobile phone use:
Electromagnetic waves alter [electric activity of the brain] and cause disturbance in sleep ; cause difficulty in concentration, fatigue, and headache ; and increase reaction time in a time-dependent manner . They increase the resting blood pressure  and reduce the production of melatonin . They are also implicated in DNA strand breaks . 
In addition, the use of mobile phones has also been related to Alzheimer’s Disease and Cancer.
A study by Swedish researchers suggests the link between mobile phone use and Alzheimer’s Disease:
Mobile phones damage key brain cells and could trigger the early onset of Alzheimer’s disease. …Researchers have found that radiation from mobile phone handsets damages areas of the brain associated with learning, memory and movement. 
This study was performed on rats, which were exposed to radiation equivalent to that of a cell phone for only two hours. The brains were examined after 50 days, and the researchers found an abundance of dead brain cells in the exposed rats.
The development state of the rat brains that were used are similar to the development state of a teenager’s brain.  The researchers emphasized the worrisome impact that mobile phone use has on the developing brain of a teenager.
Furthermore, studies have linked mobile phone use with brain cancer, mouth cancer and leukemia. Most recently, the American Journal of Epidemiology published a study from research author Dr. Siegal Sadetzki, a cancer specialist at Tel Aviv University . The Telegraph published an article about this study and summarized:
People who use a mobile phone for hours a day are 50 per cent more likely to develop mouth cancer than those who do not talk on them at all, new research has shown.
In 2002, Hardell et al published a study titled ‘Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours’ in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention. As stated on Dr Mercola’s website:
[Hardell et al] found that people who used cell phones were two and a half times more likely to have a temporal brain tumor on the side of the head where they held their phone.
In the case of tumors of the auditory nerve, which connects the ear to the brain, the risk increased to more than three times for mobile phone users. 
The relationship between mobile phone use and diseases like Alzheimer’s and cancer are controversial, but discussed more as different research continues to conclude that the link between mobile phone use and Alzheimer’s/cancer exists. On most news broadcasts we are told to not worry since more ‘research is needed’ because the results are ‘not conclusive’. In my opinion, more research is always needed, and scientific results are never conclusive to everybody due to the very nature of science.
Studies that claim a relationship between mobile phones and diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s should not be brushed aside as ‘inconclusive’. Cancer incidences have exploded over the last few decades, and a large part of the increase in occurrences cannot be explained. Environmental influences seem a logical contributor, and microwave radiation used for mobile phone communication is one of the environmental influences that has grown exponentially over the last two decades.
What does the US government have to say on the health effects of mobile phone use? Below is a section from the ‘US Department of Labor’ website on the health effects of radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation caused by mobile phone use:
Electric and magnetic fields are complex physical agents whose potential health effects are the subject of much research. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source are noted in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
In conclusion, more research is always needed to understand the full extend of the health implications that come with microwave radiation. However, there has been enough research to prove the link between mobile phone use and negative health effects from relatively mild symptoms like sleep disturbance to cancer and Alzheimer’s Disease.
Dampak Negatif 3 – Impotensi
Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples of reproductive age, nearly half of these cases are due to the men’s infertility.
This article will show that the microwave radiation emitted through mobile phone use is a cause of infertility in man.
The 2008 study titled ‘Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study’ came to the following conclusion:
…our results suggest that the use of cell phones by men is associated with a decrease in semen quality. The decrease in sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology is related to the duration of exposure to cell phones.
This study has recently been reported in the media, giving the impression that the effects of mobile phones on semen quality is a new discovery. This is not the case, there is very strong but underreported evidence with regard to the harmful effects of mobile phones on male fertility.
The section below refers to several articles and studies, all published in recent years.
Derias et al state in the conclusion of ‘Growing concern over the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility’:
With regard to the potential damaging effects on the male reproductive system, several studies have been carried out on animals. These studies revealed a wide spectrum of possible effects that range from an insignificant effect to variable degrees of testicular damage and reduction of different sperm parameters.
Many of the tests in this area have been performed on animals, since it is hard to analyze the sperm generation in humans; The formation of a spermatozoon takes 11-13 weeks. Another reason is that some of the studies analyze the testicles of test animals, an unfortunate sacrifice very few men would be willing to make.
However, there have been many studies that have analyzed the mobile phone usage of men and the effect on the subsequent provided semen. One such study concludes that just carrying a mobile phone affects human sperm:
…storage of mobile phones close to the testes had a significant negative impact on sperm concentration and the percentage of motile sperm. These trends suggest that recent concerns over long-term exposure to the electromagnetic irradiation emitted by mobile phones should be taken more seriously, given the growing trend for deterioration in the male germ line.
In a 2005 Hungarian study titled ‘Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality’, Dr Fejez et al analyzed the impact of mobile phone use on the semen of 371 men. This study concluded that the longer a mobile phone is used on a daily basis, the bigger the effect on the sperm quality. Longer exposure resulted in larger percentage of slower sperm, which may be caused by “electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones”.
Furthermore, a Polish study titled ‘Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility’ was conducted from June 2004 until May 2006 and used 304 men. A short section from the study’s summary:
In the analysis of the effect of [mobile phone] equipment on the semen it was noted that an increase in the percentage of sperm cells of abnormal morphology is associated with the duration of exposure to the waves emitted by the [mobile] phone. It was also confirmed that a decrease in the percentage of sperm cells in vital progressing motility in the semen is correlated with the frequency of using mobile phones.
The full conclusion of this study consists out of two points:
1. A decrease in the percentage of live sperm cells in a vital, progressive motility in semen is correlated with the frequency of usage of mobile phones.
2. An increase in the percentage of sperm cells with abnormal morphology is associated with the duration of exposure to the waves emitted by [mobile phone] equipment.
The studies that have been mentioned thus far, all indicate that mobile phone use is a cause of infertility in man. The study that is mentioned below was performed on mice and looks into the impact mobile phone radiation has on the DNA of sperm, and the subsequent impact on the conceived offspring.
In 2005, a study titled ‘Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline’ was published in the ‘International Journal of Andrology’. Andrology deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
This study on mice suggests that the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones causes significant damage to the cellular DNA of maturing sperm. Normally, DNA damage is repaired by the female reproductive system, between fertilization and the first cell division.
Mistakes at this point have the potential to create mutations that could disrupt the normality of embryonic development and the health and well being of the offspring.
DNA damage to maturing sperm caused by mobile phone radiation can results in damaged DNA in a newborn, this phenomenon is called ‘male-mediated developmental toxicity’, making the offspring more prone to genetic disease, birth defects and childhood cancer.
Male-mediated development toxicity can in turn cause a variety of health issues to the child, depending on the part of the DNA that was damaged. It might therefore be the microwave radiation exposure of the father that plays a bigger role than the child’s exposure in the development of some childhood diseases.
The microwave radiation exposure used in this study was much less than the radiation emitted by mobile phones:
As a consequence, the reproductive health risks associated with [microwave radiation] exposure may be even more serious than those reported in this study.
In conclusion, according to many studies mobile phone use has a negative impact on sperm quality. The longer one uses a mobile phone per day, the greater the impact on the sperm. Mobile phone use can therefore be considered to be a cause of infertility in man.
Additionally, the latter study shows the risk of DNA damage in the sperm, potentially causing long term problems for the conceived children.
The good news seems to be that preventing microwave radiation exposure should undo the negative effects on the male fertility, and prevent the DNA damage.
Unfortunately, the male-mediated development toxicity is not the only effect microwave radiation has on children. The next article will look into the effect that mobile phone radiation has on children.
Dampak egatif 4-Efek Bagi Anak-anak
The health effects of mobile phone radiation on children is very worrisome. All government reports and many scientific studies that are referred to in this article emphasize that children are more vulnerable than adults. In ‘How Exposure to Mobile Phone Base-Station Signals Can Adversely Affect Humans’, Dr Hyland explains why children are more vulnerable:
Preadolescent children are more vulnerable [to microwave radiation] because of their thinner skulls, their still developing nervous systems, their increased levels of cell division, and their less robust immune systems.
Children that grow up in our new mobile phone world are exposed to microwave radiation from the moment they are in the womb. However, the effects of microwave radiation on infants is unknown to most parents. The Stewart Report is a report commissioned by the British Parliament in response to fears that mobile phone use could be linked to memory loss, and even Alzheimer’s Disease. It explains the effect of mobile phone radiation on children:
A one year old could absorb around double [the radio frequency (RF) radiation], and a five year old around 60%, more than an adult. Additionally, since children are being exposed to RF radiation from base stations (and from mobile phones) from a younger age than adults, they will have a longer time in which to accumulate exposure over the course of their lives, and a longer time for any delayed effects of exposure to develop.
Anybody who gets a signal on their mobile phone in their home, is in the vicinity of a mobile phone base tower. How close are you to the base station? The answer to this question will likely impact your family’s health, especially if you live within 400 meters of a base station.
A German study published in 2004 titled ‘The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer’, showed a 3 times higher risk of developing cancer for people who lived within 400 meters of a cell phone tower for a period of five years. A similar Spanish study found that people living in the close vicinity of a cell phone tower had the following health problems :
Depression increased by up to 64-fold.
Fatigue increased by up to 37-fold.
Appetite Loss increased by up to 25-fold.
Those health effects apply to adults, children can be expected to have even more severe health issues due to the increased absorption of the same radiation levels.
The health impact of RF radiation needs more research. In my opinion, one of the reasons that this is not happing is the enormous economical value that is associated with mobile communication industry and the connectivity it provides. However, both brain cancer and leukemia have been associated with microwave radiation . Keeping this and the explosive growth of mobile phones in mind, one wonders what the connection is between RF radiation and these cancers. According to the US Natural Resources Defence Council:
[Leukemia] is the most common cancer in children, responsible for more deaths than any other form of childhood cancer. From 1977 to 1995, U.S. rates of childhood leukemia rose about 1 percent each year. [20% increase over a 18 year period]
…Cancers of the central nervous system are the second most common form of cancer in children. These cancers, which may involve the brain or the spinal cord, are most common in children under seven. Childhood brain cancers have been increasing: from 1973 to 1994, the number of reported brain cancers in children under 15 increased 1.8 percent each year [45% increase over a 21 year period]. 
The association between mobile phones and childhood cancer is considered extreme by some. However, a recent study mention in Mobile Phone Disadvantage #2 – Negative Health Effects has linked mouth cancer in adults to mobile phone , other recent studies make the link between mobile phone use and male infertility (see Mobile Phone Disadvantage #3 – Cause of Infertility in Man). When you consider the children’s increased absorption of RF radiation, the childhood cancer link seems a realistic option.
Under ‘Mobile Phone Disadvantage #2 – Negative Health Effects’, there was mention of the ‘abundance of dead brain cells’ that the researchers found 50 days after 2 hours of exposure to mobile phone microwave radiation. In a 2003 paper, the researchers emphasized their concern about the impact of microwave radiation on children and teenagers:
The situation of the growing brain might deserve special concern …The intense use of mobile phones by youngsters is a serious consideration. A neuronal damage of the kind described here [dead brain cells after 50 days] may not have immediately demonstrable consequences, even if repeated. In the long run, however, it may result in reduced brain reserve capacity that might be unveiled by other neuronal disease or even the wear and tear of aging.
Potential brain damage as a result of mobile phone use was one of the big motivators for the Stewart report. It encourages the precautionary approach, especially when it comes to children:
In line with our precautionary approach, we believe that the widespread use of mobile phones by children for non-essential calls should be discouraged. We also recommend that the mobile phone industry should refrain from promoting the use of mobile phones by children.
RF radiation is a proven health risk, especially children should have minimal exposure. The final article in this series will discuss preventative measures in detail, but the obvious steps that a parent can take to minimize their children’s exposure to RF radiation are:
Do not allow your children to use a cell phone, unless there is an emergency
Limit the use of mobile phones around children to a minimum
Ensure there is no cell phone mast in the vicinity of your home and your child’s school
Send this article and similar information to adults that spend time with your children, especially teachers and other parents
In conclusion, the radiation caused by mobile phones and mobile phone masts has a negative effect on the health of children. Most studies have only looked into the (relatively) short term effects. The long term effects of continuous exposure to microwave radiation, starting from the earliest beginning (see Mobile Phone Disadvantage #3 – Cause of Infertility in Man) are unknown.
Not too long ago it was normal for adults to smoke around children. Today, many consider smoking around around children highly irresponsible. The same mentality and caution should be used when it comes to the use of mobile phones by children and around children.
Dampak Negatif 5 – Handphone beresiko meningkatkan kecelakaan
Much of the information presented in the previous articles is being debated and not acted upon by the industry or by governments; however the increased risk that mobile phones pose to driving is clear-cut and widely acknowledged.
A simple Google search will show hundreds of studies on the subject of mobile phone use and driving. All the studies I have seen agree that mobile phone use while driving increases the risk of an accident. This increased risk is due to the inability to fully focus on driving while, and shortly after, talking on a mobile phone.
In a study titled ‘Epidemiological evidence on health risks of cellular telephones’, Dr Rothman states:
…the risk of a collision was about four times greater when the driver was using the telephone or soon after a call. Use of the telephone in “hands-free’ mode was no less risky than holding the telephone to the ear with one hand while talking.
A Canadian study performed by the University of Calgary states:
…conversation on cell phones, both hand-held and handsfree, was found to influence driving performance. Epidemiological findings consistently showed an increase in crashes associated with use of cell phones.
One could argue that talking to a passenger poses the same risk as talking on a mobile phone, but this is not the case. A likely explanation is that a passenger takes the traffic situation into account, something impossible for someone on the other side of a mobile phone conversation.
Another study titled ‘Fatal distraction? A comparison of the cell-phone driver and the drunk driver’ compared the performance of mobile-phone drivers to drivers who were legally intoxicated. This study concludes:
…when controlling for driving difficulty and time on task, cell-phone drivers may actually exhibit greater impairments (i.e., more accidents and less responsive driving behavior) than legally intoxicated drivers. These data also call into question driving regulations that prohibit hand-held cell-phones and permit hands-free cell-phones, because no significant differences were found in the impairments to driving caused by these two modes of cellular communication.
In fact, many governments have banned the use of a mobile phone while driving due to its safety risks. An up-to-date list with countries and US states that have banned mobile phone use while driving can be found here.
Another interesting development is the changing legal implications for causing an accident when using a mobile phone. The following is an excerpt from a online New Jersey newspaper:
A motorist using a hand-held cell phone who causes a fatal accident could be charged with vehicular homicide if one state lawmaker gets her way. …Causing the death of another by driving a motor vehicle “recklessly” is the legal standard for filing a vehicular homicide charge in New Jersey. It is punishable by five to 10 years in prison and/or a $150,000 fine, according to Karrow’s bill.
If the increased risk of an accident is not enough of an incentive to stop you from using a mobile phone when driving, or if your employer does not leave you a choice, then consider this: International Paper Co. is a company that agreed to pay $5.2 million to settle a personal injury suit related, at least in part, to one of its employees’ use of a cell phone while driving.
In conclusion, the increased risk that mobile phones pose to driving is clear-cut and widely acknowledged.
You owe it to yourself, your family, your passengers and your fellow road users to be a safe driver. Being a safe driver means not using a mobile phone while driving.